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Some mono- and disaccharides act as signaling molecules that regulate gene expression. In budding yeast, the glucose sensor membrane Rgt2 Snf3 and activate signaling pathways regulating the expression of genes encoding glucose transporters . GPR1 membrane glucose receptor interacting with the G protein activates a signal transduction chain comprising the adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A. Results of many studies suggest that changes in intracellular levels of glucose by heksokinazę2 ( Hxk2 ) . A key position signal is a high molecular weight complex carbohydrates SNF1 , which includes the protein kinase Snf1 , Snf4 protein and one of the linker protein ( Sip1 , Sip2 or Gal83 ) . SNF1 complex phosphorylates the transcriptional regulatory protein and thus affect the expression of genes involved in the response to glucose.
In recent years an increasing number of reports of plant signaling pathways activated by glucose , sucrose and trehalose -regulated . Some elements of a complex signaling system sugars (membrane sensor , hexokinase , SNF and SCF complexes , kinases and protein phosphatases ) are homologs of yeast proteins forming the signaling cascade activated by glucose . Cukrowcowych signal transduction pathways , including pathways and hormonal pathways response to signals form the external environment in plant cells, a complex signaling network .
In mammalian cells respond to glucose complex is dependent on its phosphorylation and hormonal modifications glucose-dependent . The relatively well understood in the glucose signaling mechanism of pancreatic beta cells to regulate expression of the proinsulin gene through the increase in the ratio of ATP : AMP causes membrane depolarization , activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and insulin secretion .

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The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

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Katedra i Zakład Histologii i Embriologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu, ul. Święcickiego 6, 60-781 Poznań, tel. +48 61 8546453, fax. +48 61 8546440, email: mnowicki@ump.edu.pl

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