Endogenous estrogens play an important role in women's organism: they control menstrual cycle through the influence on foliculogenesis, ovary's steroidogenesis and growth, and endometrium transformations. But their role is not only confined to ovaries and testis action. Number of researches report about systemic role of these hormones in women. They are involved in lipids and carbohydrates metabolism, bone mineralization, vascular functions. Estrogens are synthesized not only in gonads, but also in adipose cells, bones, brain, vasculature and adrenal cortex.

Morphology and function of the mitochondria of sperm and male fertility. Part II.Zaburzenia morphological and functional mitochondrial inserts sperm

Morphological and functional disorders inserts sperm mitochondria , which are more often the cause of male infertility ( astenoteratozoospermii ) can be identified using a precise diagnosis of mitochondrial insert sperm .

Morphology and function of the mitochondria of sperm and male fertility. Part I. Normal morphology and function inserts the sperm

Sperm Mitochondria are structures unique and slightly different from somatic mitochondria . They undergo a series of morphological , biochemical and molecular changes associated with the expression of specific structural and enzymatic proteins , which are markers of maturation during spermatogenesis. These include , among others, gonadalny cytochrome cT , LDH - C4, sulfhydryl oxidase , protease LON and hsp60 . Activin A secreted by Sertoli cells when spermiogenezy mitochondria induces morphological changes spermatids , leading to the formation of condensed structures of these organelles.

Application of flow cytometry to assess the integrity of the condensation and human sperm DNA

Many cases of male infertility are genetic and molecular leading to morphological and functional abnormalities of sperm. Development and use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI? Polish no date), creates the risk of introducing an egg cell with abnormal sperm DNA (eg, impaired condensation and cuts). This can cause a lack of concept or early miscarriage.

The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

Editorial address:
Katedra i Zakład Histologii i Embriologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu, ul. Święcickiego 6, 60-781 Poznań, tel. +48 61 8546453, fax. +48 61 8546440, email:

PBK Postępby biologi komórki