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Oxygen molecule in the ground state is relatively reactive . However, it can be the source of the reactive derivative , called reactive oxygen species (ROS ) , both produced as a result of the metabolic activity of cells , as well as plants after exposure to various stress factors . In a progressive one-electron reduction of oxygen occurs to produce partially reduced intermediates , which are in the order of superoxide anion radical ( O2 - • ) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) and hydroxyl radical ( • OH) . The excitation of oxygen molecules , present in the triplet state , leads to the formation of singlet oxygen ( 1O2 ), which can react with alkanes , sulphides and phenols . Free radicals - superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical , are involved in many reactions - may form a covalent bond by reacting with other free radicals and initiate a free radical chain reaction nierodnikowymi molecules . Consequently, this may lead to severe damage to the cell macromolecules - proteins , lipids and nucleic acids. Most test reactive oxygen species during infection of plants by pathogens is hydrogen peroxide , which is more stable than other RFT . Production of reactive oxygen species in the host cell , which occurs when nekrotroficznymi fungal infection is largely a result of the modification and / or disorders of homeostasis mechanisms to physiological conditions. These include a variety of mechanisms, systems, ROS production in the cell wall , membrane and cytoplasmic organelles individual , as well as removing excess antioxidant systems ROS generated under physiological conditions or as by-products of other processes such as metabolic by-products of mitochondria , chloroplasts , and peroxisome . ROS can modulate immune processes in response to fungal infection nekrotroficznymi can affect the induction of cell death , changes in gene expression profile , induction of phytoalexins , and rearrangement of the biosynthesis of the cell wall structure . The article presents the mechanisms for the formation of reactive oxygen species and the regulation of their activity , as well as signaling pathways involving the interactions of plants with necrotrophic fungi.

The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

Editorial address:
Katedra i Zakład Histologii i Embriologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu, ul. Święcickiego 6, 60-781 Poznań, tel. +48 61 8546453, fax. +48 61 8546440, email:

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