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Plasmodesmata , or cytoplasmic channels that are found in the cell walls provide connectivity symplastową between adjacent protoplasts of plant cells . Numerous studies have shown that plasmodesmata play an important role in the development and differentiation of cells. In turn, by varying the number or the diameter of plasmodesmata , which is associated with regulation of their permeability to specific substances , the plant can control these processes . Every year there are new reports showing that plasmodesmata as play an important role in the phenomena of communication cells and the control mechanisms leading to their specialization. Underlying the importance of communication symplastowej cell differentiation in the results of experiments indicating the possibility of moving this way proteins and RNAs . The paper combined with each other information about the CPC , and GL3/EGL3 proteins for which have been described previously the ability to move through plasmodesmata and the latest models of genetic control word differentiation of the epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana root . The publications to the conclusion that those proteins may play a significant role in the processes of cell specialization . One of the described model is based on a very interesting Mutual Support Mechanism , which provides a kind of " supporting a " cell włośnikowych and niewłośnikowych in the implementation of development programs opposite . This means that it is sufficient to initiate the differentiation process of the cells in one row , and they interact with the neighboring rows of cells , transport proteins , will direct them to a different path of specialization. In this case, this mechanism is possible only through the inclusion of proteins transported symplastowo activity regulation processes of gene expression in the target cell . It is the products of these genes are controlled by proteins moving plazmodesmami , subsequently decide on the future fate of the cell. In addition, two other models described genetic control of differentiation of the epidermal cells of the root , almost simultaneously with the proposed mechanism of Mutual Support by independent teams of scientists . Each model includes a group of identical genes involved in the process of cell specialization . However, there are a variety of relationships and different genes as ultimately determining the fate of cells. A common feature of the models is the presence of genes encoding proteins having the ability to move through plasmodesmata (CPC and GL3/EGL3 ) and taking into account their symplastowego transport as a key in initiating the process of cell differentiation . Separately, provides information for the differentiation of the epidermal cells of Arabidopsis leaf that represents the root epidermis analogous to the test object . Also in this case, from a group of similar cells initially develop two different types of them : producing trichomes and niewytwarzające them. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that some genes involved in cell specialization is identical with the corresponding differentiation of epidermal cells of the root. For part of the common genes include those encoding proteins also transported symplastowo . I should add that only some of these proteins demonstrated the ability to move through plasmodesmata between the cells of the epidermis of the leaf. At the same time discovered protein ( TTG1 ), whose transport symplastowy characteristic is as yet only a leaf . The studies conducted have shown that the transport is active, which means that the protein is able to increase the diameter of plasmodesmata , so as to allow its movement within the epidermis . Because TTG1 is responsible for the education of Italian , must be its accumulation in certain cells , which is associated with a reduction in the amount of adjacent cells . As a result, it is impossible to initiate the development of trichomes near the cells already educated in Italian , which is equivalent to " supporting a " cell in initiating various development programs described for the root. The research presented in this paper indicate that we know still new proteins having the ability to move between cells. In addition, these proteins may of course influence the processes of different types of cells in various types of organs , eg as described in the work CPL3 . All this information clearly indicate how extensively studied the mechanisms of initiation and course of cell differentiation and the genes that control these processes. Noteworthy group of genes encoding proteins transported symplastowo , suggesting that they may represent a key , especially One factor responsible for determining the future of the cells. Of particular interest is the similarity of the presented Mechanism of Mutual Support in the root epidermis and close to the model of leaf epidermal cell differentiation -dependent accumulation of TTG1 . This demonstrates not only the important role of transport symplastowego in a process of specialization , but also clearly shows the importance of the role of plasmodesmata in the control of the spatial distribution of different types of cells in its immediate vicinity.

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The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

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